- Research paper
- Open access
- CCA4.0 Intern’l License
- Not for the profit
Scientific and Technical Advisory Council (STAC), of the Special Journals Publisher (SJP)
Scientific and Technical Advisory Council (STAC) of the Special Journals Publisher (SJP): Development and Sustainability: the role of Philosophy, Sociology, and Education research. Special Journal of Philosophy, Sociology, and Education [SJ-PSE], 2020; 1 (1):1-21
While there is no universal way of defining development, a critical review of most definitions seems to tilt towards the fact that any process that leads to growth, progress, or change in physical, economic, environmental, and social components of a system may be taken as development (1). On the other hand, the ability to maintain or keep this growth, progress, or change continually both for today and for the future may be seen as sustainability (2). Development and sustainability, therefore, deal with any process that leads to a significantly measurable outcome in the growth, progress, and change of physical, economic, environmental, and social components of a system. Such change should provide our needs today without disturbing the ability of our children tomorrow to meet their own needs (3). A good Philosophy, Sociology, and Education research database provide information that can impact the achievement of this goal through Good disease management prevention and control.
The United Nations Development goals
The United nation’ suggestions about sustainable development goals are the most popular pendulum on which most if not all discussions about sustainable development swing around probably because the evidence and significance of the suggested development goals are so overwhelming. The interconnectivity of the issues raised by the 17 United Nations development goals is so amazing and realistic that one wonders what the world would look like when these goals are achieved in the long run (4). This is because a society devoid of lack and starvation, in which the citizens are relatively in good health with some levels of education for everyone and with no discrimination, and no inequalities would be a great and appealing society.
Examples of sustainable development research areas
Philosophy, Sociology and Education research will provide the knowledge of host response to the use of high-quality drugs, to improve the quality of human resources for health that will join forces to make available clean water, clean energy, sanitation, education, good skills to impact the industry and infrastructure for sustainable cities and communities (5). Philosophy, Sociology, and Education research also encourage judicious use and re-use of natural resources through the elucidation of human and animal response to the exploration and recycling benefits derived from the environment including resources below water and land (6). Climate action and its influence on natural resources and the ecosystem is a threat to Philosophy, Sociology, and Education research, and understanding how we manage it will impact health security and safety both for us and for the future generation (7). Philosophy, Sociology, and Education research can impact the health status of the societies and a healthy society can be strong to talk about the partnership for Peace Justice, and strong institution, as a necessary panacea for war, conflicts instability, animosity, acrimony, and global confusion all of which militate against development and sustainability
Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research can play a central underpinning role in answering sustainable development research questions (8) that will invariably enhance our abilities to identify, harness, and utilize natural resources to our benefit. Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research can also provide reliable and verifiable information that can impact interventions that will better the lives of people. Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research-based information are reliable because the research question and research process are detailed and standardized and can be verified. (9)
In this 3-decade retrospective review of published papers that deals with development and sustainability, the role and contribution of Philosophy, Sociology, and Education research in development and sustainability is fully discussed
Materials and Methods
In this retrospective cross-sectional Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research, 346 published full-length original papers, were downloaded and perused including published addendum, corrections, editorials, abstracts of meetings, conference proceedings, and review article, on the general concept of development and sustainability. This searching and corresponding download of relevant papers were made from a globally recognized research-based data repository that included but not limited to the Web of Science (WoS) (10) core collection database on the nineteens of July 2020 at about 10.25 GMT+2). The database of PubMed, Research Gate, and Google scholars was perused to be sure no new documents relevant and necessary for this study were missed out. However, the web of science formed the major and reference database for this study because our software was more compatible with recovered data encoded in the web of science database while other databases consulted served to provide other relevant articles, we considered imported but probably missing in the web of science.
Boolean topic search approach
The Boolean topic search approach (11) used included “(development * AND sustainability$) OR (Sustainability of * AND development$) to encompass all relevant and available documents (12) on the subject of development and sustainability between 1990 and 2019. At the time of this study, we judged that the Web of Science Core Collection database had enough user-friendly and accessible academic research database relatively covering enough journals, books, conferences as well as millions of records from clarivate.libguides.com (references). To ensure the inclusion of abbreviated or shorten words, the wildcard * and $ were added to the end of the search algorithms. Thereafter, all documents that meet the eligibility criteria of sustainable development were retrieved and exported into BibTex file format and the authors, titles, abstracts mined in PDF file format.
All the bibliometric variables were retrieved filtered and normalized for quality control. The results were analyzed in a bibliophily plugin package of the 3.5.1 version of R-studio software, while the codes and commands were adopted from Https://www.bibliometrics.org to evaluate the bibliometrics indices. Tables and graph were made in Microsoft excel 16 version and network maps were visualized in 1,6 Vox-viewer software
In this Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research, 346 papers written by 1502 authors over three decades were recovered, perused, and analyzed as shown in table 1 below. Ninety-seven (97) documents were written by 95 authors while 1407 authors wrote 1407, multi-author documents giving 3.52 collaborative index and authors and co-authors per documents indexes of 3.02 and 3.15 respectively. Ninety-four proceedings papers, three of them were originally presented as journal articles while 25 were review articles and 14 articles were Editorial documents.
In the yearly distribution of articles written and cited during the studied period (Figure 1), it was observed that the mean total citation of articles was highest in 2010, followed by 2008, and then 2008 and 2014 respectively. An upward trend was seen in articles publication from 2014 to 2019 while publication staggered between 2006 and 20212.
Table 1: For authors keywords and keywords plus in Philosophy, Sociology and Education Research
|Keywords plus||Occurrences||Author keywords||Occurrences|
|performance||18||sustainable development goals||12|
|climate change||14||higher education||9|
|life cycle assessment||11||economic development||8|
|conservation||10||education for sustainable development||8|
|future||9||education for sustainability||6|
In the web of science, the term keywords plus appear to depict terminologies or phrases that regularly show in the titles of a paper’s references, and may however not be seen in the title of the manuscripts in question. Authors’ keywords show terms that authors prudently selected during manuscript development that they know or think most accurately represent their papers. The most common author’s keywords terms in this study are ‘Sustainability’ which appeared 126 times followed by “sustainable development” which occurred 77 times, followed by environment and development that occurred 16 and 15 times respectively. Other keywords appeared in different decreasing order as shown in table 2 above. In the keywords plus section, management, framework, and systems were the terms that occurred 31, 29, and 24 times in decreasing order. The keyword plus and authors’ keywords show the trend and direction of research going on in the past three decades covered by this study.
Figure 2, shows a log scale over a year to explain the trends of topics used in the research of development and sustainability, over 3 decades. Politics was the only word used in 2014. In 2016, topic usage increased in logarithmic proportion, with the addition of evolution, communities, impact assessment, systems, and science to politics. In 2017, knowledge, performance, indicators, framework, and management were added to the topic bank used. In 2018 topic bank swelled by the use of corporate social responsibility, efficiency, land use, life cycle assessment, governance, impact, models, and systems in increasing logarithmic proportion.
The above word treemap was used to look at the ranked structure of a Tree Diagram and at the same time showing the value of each category through area size. Each category is assigned a rectangle area with their subcategory rectangles nested beside it according to the size. All quantities assigned to a category have their area size displayed in proportion to that quantity and the other quantities within the same parent category in a part-to-whole relationship.
Also, the area size of the parent category is the total of its subcategories. All subcategories with no assigned quantities have their areas being divided equally amongst the other subcategories within their parent category. However, in Fig 3 all categories are assigned. The way rectangles are divided and ordered into sub-rectangles is dependent on the tiling algorithm used. Many tiling algorithms have been developed, but the “square’ algorithm” which keeps each rectangle as square as possible is the one commonly used.
In fig 3, the Framework is the highest with subcategories of model and indicators next in rank followed by city and developing countries, and finally by the system. The management category was followed in rank by cities, impact, and strategy, and next in rank was design and finally by financial performance. The next category was impacts followed in rank by challenges followed by environment and followed by quantity and leadership. The next is systems followed by a subcategory of climate change and education, and then by future and innovations respectively. Performance, Knowledge, and governance are the next categories followed by attitudes; communities and efficiencies, and water. Again, Energy, policy, business, growth, corporate responsibility, and land use all follow each other in decreasing order or ranks as shown in fig 3. The way rectangles are divided and ordered into sub-rectangles is dependent on the tiling algorithm used. Many tiling algorithms have been developed, but the “qualified algorithm” which keeps each rectangle as square as possible is the one commonly used.
Word growth graph showing the trend of usage of the words in various studies over time. The following words stood out as most prevalent in the studies covered. The words are Model, impact, management, systems, framework, governance, indicators, performance, knowledge, energy respectively. The use of the words in the covered research all had a steep logarithmic rise between 2013 and 2017 whereas model, impact, and management topped the list while performance, knowledge, and energy were least in occurrence as shown in Fig 4.
Figure 5 shows the 3 different clusters of development and sustainability categories and the corresponding variables. There are also the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the multiple comparison analysis used to analyze the conceptual structure map above. The interpretation of category points is guided by the centroid principle whereby the category coordinates are the weighted average of coordinates clustering around that category. Thus, the interpretation takes its bearing from the central topic (development and sustainability) which is the category and located at the zero coordinate while the variables are clustered around the categories.
For the horizontal category, the left side has no sustainability and development while the right side has sustainability and development. For the vertical dimension, the upper side has strong sustainability and development while the lower side has week sustainability and development. The father the variables are clustered away from the category the more they are decimated from the categories while the closer the variables are clustered away from the categories the less the discrimination and the more the association of the variables with the categories.
In Fig 5, the sustainability and development categories are clustered in three different locations with associated variables depicting the strength and weakness of associations as well as the magnitude or severity of the category being studied. The green cluster depicts strong sustainability and development that is well discriminated by its associated variables (system, risk, performance, decision making, and design. The second blue cluster depicts very strong and better sustainability and development that is very well discriminated by its associated variables (business strategy, financial performance, social and cooperate responsibilities, and attitudes)
Figure 6 is a dendrogram that shows the hierarchical relationship between clades (category) and variables (leaves}. It is most commonly created as an output from hierarchical clustering with its main use being to find the best way to allocate variables to clusters. The clades of the clusters or the category are arranged according to how similar (or dissimilar) they are to each other and other clusters. Clades that are close to the same height are similar to each other; clades with different heights have some kind of dissimilarity — the greater the height difference, the more dissimilarity (measure using Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient). Social responsibility, cooperate social responsibility, and financial performance different from each other because the length of the branches is different in Hight. Perspective and china, behavior and future, developing countries and management, model and energy, innovation and city, policy and environment, framework and evolution, and more are similar to each other because their branch height is of similar length. All these are variables that cluster around the sustainability and development categories.
Fig 7 depicts 30 topmost authors’ collaboration networks. It should be noted that the circles represent authors and the close the circles the more likely there may have a collaboration network and collaboration should be represented by connecting lines. Generally, figure 6 shows that there was no significant collaboration as the circles are mainly far apart from each other with no connecting lines. Instead, there was some cooccurrence each time the circles coincided with each other. There was no collaboration but there were merely cooccurrence
Fig 8 depicts the collaboration network, of institutional affiliates and the observations show that again there was no collaboration among analyzed institutions as there were no connecting lines seen linking the circles. However, there was a cooccurrence of institutions concerning development and sustainability research. The bigger the circle the more likely the institutions are involved in the development and sustainable research. Manchester, Aero, Hamburg, Bournemouth, and Nottingham Trent with big circles all show good involvement with development and sustainability as seen by their circles coinciding one with another but showed no collaboration with other institutions as there were no connecting lines to show collaboration on the sustainable development topic
Fig 9 shows four clusters of green, blue, red, and purple with a clear collaboration, and cooccurrence was seen among participating institutions analyzed. In decreasing order of magnitude of involvement with sustainable development, the United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, Australia, Spain brazil, and South Africa all depicted sustainable development activities with different levels of cooccurrence. On the other hand, it can be seen that countries collaborated more than the authors with the United Kingdom, Australia, Brazil, Japan, Portugal, Germany, and Finland collaborating with other counties. The bigger the circle the greater is the magnitude of the Institutions involvement with development and sustainability. Therefore, the United Kingdom showed the greatest activities followed by Germany and Australia while the Netherlands and Spain led the others that did not collaborate with other countries
Figure 10 shows the Co-occurrence of the author’s keywords network showing 4 main clusters led by four key words categories: sustainability (red), sustainable development (purple), sustainable development goals (green), and social sustainability (blue) respectively. The thicker the line connecting two words the closer the relationships. Therefore, looking at the sustainability cluster, it can be seen that sustainability and development have the closest relationship, followed by sustainability and the environment. Sustainability and education, china, and innovations. For the purple keywords category cluster sustainable development and indicators, sustainable development goals (SDGs), governance, life cycle assessment, and climate change has a similarly close relationship while the rest had similar relationships.
Fig 1-10, depicts the results obtained from this retrospective review. The use of the words such as framework, model, education, science, systems, challenges, growth among others points to the fact that studies conducted in the past 3 decades took into consideration some elements of Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research. The analysis involved topic trend, word treemap, word growth, conceptual structure map, using Multiple Correspondence Analysis, a dendrogram of key terminologies, collaboration networks of authors, institutions, and countries respectively, and cooccurrence of authors key words. There was no collaboration among authors and institutions (7 and 8) but there were Country collaborations (Fig 8) with the United Kingdom taking the lead. There was also a cooccurrence of authors’ keywords with two major categories being sustainability and sustainable development with many subcategories Fig 10. These indicate to some extent compliance with the principle’s development and sustainability
The development debates
The concept of development has continued to generate debate because of its relevance to the very factors that matter to the general populace all over the world. Inequality, hunger, and poverty are the common offspring of the market designed to favor advanced countries when they offer their services to help the underdeveloped countries to identify, harness, and utilize their natural resources (13, 14). The markets are made to make the services to utilize the resources more expensive than the resources themselves while the reverse should have been the case. Any developing country that can break out of this cocoon will be reclassified as its dependency on the services will have decreased drastically. That’s where Philosophy, Sociology, and Education research comes in to provide detailed knowledge of the best ways to live in a better and safe society and to reduce the incidence of diseases for the greater good of the general public (15, 16)
Subject-specific areas where Philosophy, Sociology, and Education research can impact sustainability and development may include but are not limited to the following thematic research areas of global significance.
- Adult education research on what skills and knowledge are required to be more effective and more productive citizens, workers, parents, (17, 18)
- How to utilize educational theory, research, technology, assessments, classroom management, and other techniques to strengthen curriculum and instructional models and reduce achievement gaps. (19, 20)
- Communications Sciences and Disorders education research programs with an emphasis on how best to prepare students for meaningful and rewarding careers in the field of speech-language pathology or audiology. (21-23)
- Early Childhood Education research with emphasis on how best to influence the lives of young children by researching on how best to shape the children’s emotional, social, and cognitive development during those formative years. (24-28)
- How to prepare Participants in Educational Leadership programs to learn by studying and performing research in areas such as instructional leadership, academic leadership, and organizational leadership (29-32)
- Research in national and global social contexts; women’s participation and transformation of culture, society, and politics; violence against women; postmodern theoretical perspectives; and research methods. (33-34)
- Causes of crime, Reasons why some people violate norms, Checks, and balances for both the offenders and the victims? the laws and their enforcement and how are they enforced? (35-36)
Sustainability of development
Sustainability of development appears to hinge on a certain lifestyle and culture that characterizes the standard of living and expectations of every society in the world not minding the geographical or ethnic inclination (37). There is also an associated peculiar challenge that seems to seek the attention of such unique communities if life must go on (38). Ability to manage the challenges while still trying to live a normal life in society defines the living condition of society (39). The availability of natural resources and the skills to harness and utilize these natural resources to the maximum benefit of the general populace in a particular place and point in time defines the so-called levels of development (40, 41). Three kinds of development according to the United Nations include developed, developing, and developed. This classification is largely based on the economic growth and security of nations of the earth (42). Developed countries are on top of the list of high economic and security status followed by developing and underdeveloped respectively and all these are better understood when studied vis-à-vis the standard of living of the people in question (43)
Role of Philosophy, Sociology and Education research
Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research methods offer the best approach to the struggle to understand how best to improve on our abilities to identify, harness, and utilize these natural resources (44). A society is developed if it can harness and process and utilize these resources in the best interest of the. Thus, the concept of development endorses how to best manage the identified resources to be enough to solve the challenges of the society as well as provide the necessary security of the society (45). The sustainable aspect of society’s development is seen when a society can manage its resource to solve its problems as well as provide security for its citizens today and for their children tomorrow (46). The human development index measures a countries average achievement in life expectancy, education, and income (47). Dependency refers to reliance on other nations for growth and by international trade and domestic development, low-income countries depend more and more on rich nations for support (48). There is an unequal power relationship between the rich and the poor nations and rules are made to favor the rich and making the poor even poorer (49)
Development concept debates
Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research can impact the broader concept, of development and sustainability because the topic is very popular and extensively discussed in Social, Economic, and Environmental circles (50). There are many proposed definitions widely publicized but a generally acceptable or universal definition is yet to emerge. Most definitions available for perusal are contextual with everyone defining development based on prevailing circumstances or situation at hand. It centers on the use of economic principles to reduce poverty, remove inequality, and unemployment. It entails critical evaluation of our ability to ask ourselves what we can do effectively, what we can do with help, and what we cannot do even with help. So, development can be seen as people’s ability to utilize their resources for their benefit as well as others in need (51), while sustainability of development may be seen as an ability to harness and manage these resources in such a way for it to be enough for us today and our children tomorrow (52).
Disparities in these abilities’ contingent on the level of dependencies on other nations before utilizing these resources define the level of development in our societies (53). For developed countries, the Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research that they can do without help from other countries are bigger than what they can do with help (54). For Developing and underdeveloped countries, the Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research they can do with help are bigger than what they cannot do. Thus, disparities in the interdependence of counties in Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research define their development and sustainability status. To impact the Philosophy, Sociology, and Education abilities of nations, there is the concept of balanced growth and development that requires all sectors including industries to start and grow at the same time and each generates the market demand and supply for one another (55). This again is defined by the income base of a country that also has a measurable influence on their support for Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research. Thus, the main income base of countries (low income, middle income, and high-income) directly or indirectly influence the level of support for Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research of that country (56).
The time factor appears to be the major difference between the developed, developing, and underdeveloped countries are time (57). Time brought about positive changes in Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research, and these measurable changes are the major drivers of development and sustainability. Those societies and stakeholders that belong to different stages of development have passed through challenges, setbacks, conflicts, disputes, explorations, experimentations, mistakes, lack, and more (58). All these milestones add up to their experiences and discoveries in Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research components for making society better than yesterday and these took place over time. While there is no specified amount of time for each Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research developmental process to be complete, the guiding principle should be that time is needed for development to move from one level to another.
While we struggle to harness our environment to impact Philosophy, Sociology, and Education research, all to our best benefit, we still have the challenge of preserving the society for our children tomorrow (45). Many confounding variables interfere with our ability to make Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research development sustainable in the context of the economic, social, and environmental impact of activities and critical decisions we make. The resources we need to make Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research development sustainable appears to be theoretically available but why the attainment of the different stages of development remains elusive to many stakeholders continue to be a topic for public debate (59). This debate and curiosity for answers provides the horizon for the next generation Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research and curiosity for lasting answers
New tools and paradigm shift
The rationale for new Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research tools and justification for a paradigm shift in the drive for sustainable development is predicated on the partial insight of the problems of poverty, environmental degradation, confusion about the role of economic growth, and the concepts of sustainability and participation (60). How these factors and weaknesses can lead to Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research inadequacies and contradictions in relevant policy-making is seen at the global level of global trade, agriculture, manufacturing, and forestry. Therefore, if sustainable development in Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research is to have a central impact, on the society and the stakeholders, then political foot-dragging will have to be given up in favor of research-based intellectual clarity and precision (61). This will be the tool that will drive the speed, direction, and content of Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research development in the next couple of decades
Because of the diverse nature of our society today and the changing dynamics of associated challenges, the need for Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research development and sustainability cannot be overemphasized. Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research Databases that help expand our knowledge on how to be to identify, harness, and utilize our natural resources with minimum dependencies on others will significantly impact the sustainable development goals. Special Journal of Philosophy, Sociology, and Education Research published by the Special Journals publisher was launched to fill these gaps.
- Schell LM, Gallo MV, Ravenscroft J. Environmental influences on human growth and development: historical review and case study of contemporary influences. Ann Hum Biol. 2009 Sep-Oct;36(5):459-77
- Moore JE, Mascarenhas A, Bain J, Straus SE. Developing a comprehensive definition of sustainability. Implement Sci. 2017 Sep 2;12(1):110.
- Bryant JH, Harrison PF; Institute of Medicine (US) Board on International Health. Global Health in Transition: A Synthesis: Perspectives from International Organizations. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1996. Strategies for Sustainable Dev
- Gera R, Narwal R, Jain M, Taneja G, Gupta S. Sustainable Development Goals: Leveraging the Global Agenda for Driving Health Policy Reforms and Achieving Universal Health Coverage in India. Indian J Community Med. 2018 Oct-Dec;43(4):255-259.
- Hutton G, Chase C. The Knowledge Base for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 May 27;13(6):536.
- Hopewell J, Dvorak R, Kosior E. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009 Jul 27;364(1526):2115-26
- Dodo MK. Examining the potential impacts of climate change on international security: EU-Africa partnership on climate change. Springerplus. 2014 Apr 17;3:194.
- Meunier-Beillard N, Ecarnot F, Rigaud JP, Quenot JP. Can qualitative research play a role in answering ethical questions in intensive care? Ann Transl Med. 2017 Dec;5(Suppl 4): S45
- National Academy of Sciences (US), National Academy of Engineering (US), and the Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Ensuring the Utility and Integrity of Research Data in a Digital Age. Ensuring the Integrity, Accessibility, and Stewardship of Research Data in the Digital Age. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2009. 2, Ensuring the Integrity of Research Data.
- Sevinc A. Web of science: a unique method of cited reference searching. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004 Jul;96(7):980-3.
- Bramer WM, de Jonge GB, Rethlefsen ML, Mast F, Kleijnen J. A systematic approach to searching: an efficient and complete method to develop literature searches. J Med Libr Assoc. 2018 Oct;106(4):531-541.
- Chatterjee A, Ghosh A, Chakrabarti BK. The universality of Citation Distributions for Academic Institutions and Journals. PLoS One. 2016 Jan 11;11(1):e0146762. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0148863.
- Pollard CM, Booth S. Food Insecurity and Hunger in Rich Countries-It Is Time for Action against Inequality. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 May 21;16(10):1804.
- Singh AR, Singh SA. Diseases of poverty and lifestyle, well-being and human development. Men’s Sana Monogr. 2008 Jan;6(1):187-225.
- Amzat J, Razum O. Sociology and Health. Medical Sociology in Africa. 2014 Feb 28:1–19.
- Nystoriak MA, Bhatnagar A. Cardiovascular Effects and Benefits of Exercise. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2018 Sep 28;5:135.
- Biglan A, Flay BR, Embry DD, Sandler IN. The critical role of nurturing environments for promoting human well-being. Am Psychol. 2012 May-Jun;67(4):257-71.
- Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth; Koplan JP, Liverman CT, Kraak VI, editors. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2005. 6, Local Communities.
- Shirani Bidabadi N, Nasr Isfahani A, Rouhollahi A, Khalili R. Effective Teaching Methods in Higher Education: Requirements and Barriers. J Adv Med Educ Prof. 2016 Oct;4(4):170-178.
- Woods M, Rosenberg ME. Educ’l Tools: Thinking Outside the Box. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016 Mar 7;11(3):518-26.
- Cassidy BP, Getchell LE, Harwood L, Hemmett J, Moist LM. Barriers to Education and Shared Decision Making in the Chronic Kidney Disease Population: A Narrative Review. Can J Kidney Health Dis. 2018 Nov 2;5:2054358118803322.
- Spitzer M. Masked education? The benefits and burdens of wearing face masks in schools during the current Corona pandemic. Trends Neurosci Educ. 2020 Sep;20:100138.
- Jansen KL, Rosenbaum ME. The State of Communication Education in Family Medicine Residencies. Fam Med. 2016 Jun;48(6):445-51.
- Committee on the Science of Children Birth to Age 8: Deepening and Broadening the Foundation for Success; Board on Children, Youth, and Families; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council; Allen LR, Kelly BB, editors. Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2015 Jul 23. 4, Child Development and Early Learning.
- Bertrand J, Williams R, Ford-Jones L. Social paediatrics and early child development – the practical enhancements: Part 2. Paediatr Child Health. 2008 Dec;13(10):857-61.
- McCoy DC, Yoshikawa H, Ziol-Guest KM, Duncan GJ, Schindler HS, Magnuson K, Yang R, Koepp A, Shonkoff JP. Impacts of Early Childhood Education on Medium- and Long-Term Educational Outcomes. Educ Res. 2017 Nov;46(8):474-487.
- El Nokali NE, Bachman HJ, Votruba-Drzal E. Parent involvement and children’s academic and social development in elementary school. Child Dev. 2010 May-Jun;81(3):988-1005.
- National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Committee on Applying Neurobiological and Socio-Behavioral Sciences from Prenatal Through Early Childhood Development: A Health Equity Approach; Negussie Y, Geller A, DeVoe JE, editors. Vibrant and Healthy Kids: Aligning Science, Practice, and Policy to Advance Health Equity. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2019 Jul 25. 7, Promoting Health Equity Through Early Care and Education.
- Reed BN, Klutts AM, Mattingly TJ 2nd. A Systematic Review of Leadership Definitions, Competencies, and Assessment Methods in Pharmacy Education. Am J Pharm Educ. 2019 Nov;83(9):7520.
- Antes AL, Mart A, DuBois JM. Are Leadership and Management Essential for Good Research? An Interview Study of Genetic Researchers. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics. 2016 Dec;11(5):408-423.
- Rahmadani VG, Schaufeli WB, Stouten J, Zhang Z, Zulkarnain Z. Engaging Leadership and Its Implication for Work Engagement and Job Outcomes at the Individual and Team Level: A Multi-Level Longitudinal Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jan 26;17(3):776.
- \Ginzburg SB, Deutsch S, Bellissimo J, Elkowitz DE, Stern JN, Lucito R. Integration of leadership training into a problem/case-based learning program for first- and second-year medical students. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2018 Apr 9;9:221-226.
- Fulu E, Miedema S. Violence Against Women: Globalizing the Integrated Ecological Model. Violence Against Women. 2015 Dec;21(12):1431-55.
- Hicks S. Social work and gender: An argument for practical accounts. Qual Soc Work. 2015 Jul;14(4):471-487.
- Simons RL, Burt CH. LEARNING TO BE BAD: ADVERSE SOCIAL CONDITIONS, SOCIAL SCHEMAS, AND CRIME. Criminology. 2011 May 1;49(2):553-598.
- Mann H, Garcia-Rada X, Hornuf L, Tafurt J. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries. Front Psychol. 2016 Feb 8;7:85.
- Tsai Y. Relationship between organizational culture, leadership behavior, and job satisfaction. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011 May 14;11:98.
- Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front Pharmacol. 2014 Jan 10;4:177.
- Mechanic D. Population health: challenges for science and society. Milbank Q. 2007 Sep;85(3):533-59.
- Pretty J, Bharucha ZP. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems. Ann Bot. 2014 Dec;114(8):1571-96.
- Seetharaman, Moorthy K, Patwa N, Saravanan, Gupta Y. Breaking barriers in the deployment of renewable energy. Heliyon. 2019 Jan 26;5(1):e01166.
- National Research Council (US) Panel on Biodiversity Research Priorities. Conserving Biodiversity: A Research Agenda for Development Agencies. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1992. 1, Biodiversity, & Dev
- Gonzalez-Brambila CN, Reyes-Gonzalez L, Veloso F, Perez-Angón MA. The Scientific Impact of Developing Nations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 29;11(3):e0151328
- Monroe-Wise A, Kinuthia J, Fuller S, Dunbar M, Masuda D, Opiyo E, Muchai B, Chepken C, Omwenga E, Oboko R, Osoti A, Masys D, Chung MH. Improving Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Knowledge and Skills to Develop Health Research Capacity in Kenya. Online J Public Health Inform. 2019 Dec 31;11(3):e22
- Sinding SW. Population, poverty, and economic development. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009 Oct 27;364(1532):3023-30
- Spady D. The environment and our responsibility to our children and youth: A message for adults. Paediatr Child Health. 2009 May;14(5):290-2.
- Basic B, Devic Z, Denic N, Zlatkovic D, Ilic ID, Cao Y, Jermsittiparsert K, Le HV. Human development index in the context of human development: Review on the western Balkans countries. Brain Behav. 2020 Aug 9;10(9): e01755.
- Henderson V, Squires T, Storeygard A, Weil D. THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: NATURE, HISTORY, AND THE ROLE OF TRADE. Q J Econ. 2018 Feb;133(1):357-406.
- Schuftan C. Poverty and Inequity in the Era of Globalization: Our Need to Change and Re-conceptualize. Int J Equity Health. 2003 Mar 19;2(1):4.
- Nunes AR, Lee K, O’Riordan T. The importance of an integrating framework for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: the example of health and well-being. BMJ Glob Health. 2016 Nov 24;1(3):e000068.
- Braveman P, Gottlieb L. The social determinants of health: it’s time to consider the causes of the causes. Public Health Rep. 2014 Jan-Feb;129 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):19-31.
- Clark WC, van Kerkhoff L, Lebel L, Gallopin GC. Crafting usable knowledge for sustainable development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Apr 26;113(17):4570-8.
- Arcaya MC, Arcaya AL, Subramanian SV. Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories. Glob Health Action. 2015 Jun 24;8:27106.
- Neirotti RA. Barriers to development: pushing the boundaries. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2015 Jan-Mar;30(1):104-13.
- Delanka-Pedige HMK, Munasinghe-Arachchige SP, Abeysiriwardana-Arachchige ISA, Nirmalakhandan N. (2020) Wastewater infrastructure for sustainable cities: an assessment based on UN sustainable development goals (SDGs). International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology0:0, pages 1-7.
- Rathod S, Pinninti N, Irfan M, Gorczynski P, Rathod P, Gega L, Naeem F. Mental Health Service Provision in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Health Serv Insights. 2017 Mar 28;10:1178632917694350.
- Stewart F. Root causes of violent conflict in developing countries. BMJ. 2002 Feb 9;324(7333):342-5.
- Lemke AA, Harris-Wai JN. Stakeholder engagement in policy development: challenges and opportunities for human genomics. Genet Med. 2015 Dec;17(12):949-57.
- Hansen HA, Bjorktomta SB, Svalastog AL. Digital society generates new challenges for child welfare services. Croat Med J. 2017 Feb 28;58(1):80-83.
- Cairns J Jr. Defining goals and conditions for a sustainable world. Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Nov;105(11):1164-70.
- Azevedo MJ. Public Health in Africa: Theoretical Framework. Historical Perspectives on the State of Health and Health Systems in Africa, Volume I. 2017 Feb 1:1–77.
Submit your papers for publication to Special Journal of Philosophy, Sociology, and Education [SJ-GEC] online @ https://sjsociology.spparenet.org/submit/ or by email attachment to us @ firstname.lastname@example.org